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It was the direct successor to Windows XPwhich was released five years before, at the time being the longest time span between successive releases of Microsoft Windows desktop operating systems. Development was completed on November 8,and over the following three months, it was released in stages to computer посмотреть еще and software manufacturers, business customers and retail channels.

On January 30,it was released internationally and was made available for purchase and download from the Windows Marketplace ; it is the first release of Windows to be made available through a digital distribution platform.

New features of Windows Vista include an updated graphical user interface and visual style dubbed Aeroa new search component called Windows Searchredesigned networking, audio, print and display sub-systems, and new multimedia windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free such as Windows DVD Maker.

Vista aimed to increase the level frwe communication between machines on a home networkusing peer-to-peer technology to simplify sharing files and media between computers and devices.

Windows Vista included version 3. While these new features and windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free improvements garnered positive reviews, Vista was also the target of much criticism and negative press.

Criticism of Windows Vista includes its high system requirementsits more restrictive licensing terms, lack of compatibility, longer boot timeand excessive authorization prompts from User Account Control. As a result of these and other issues, Windows Vista saw initial adoption and satisfaction rttm lower than Windows XP. However, Vista usage had surpassed Microsoft’s pre-launch two-year-out expectations of achieving million users, with an estimated million Internet users in January On October windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free,Microsoft ceased sales of retail copies of Windows Vista, and the original equipment manufacturer sales for Vista ceased a year later.

Official mainstream support for Vista ended on April i,age,and extended support ended on April 11,while the server equivalent, Windows Serverhad its mainstream support ended on January defaultt,[10] and extended support ended on Defaultt 14, As of February [update]0.

Microsoft began work on Windows Vista, known at the time by its codename “Longhorn”, in May[12] five months before the release of Windows XP. It was originally expected xefault ship in late as a minor step between Windows XP and “Blackcomb”, which was planned to be the company’s next major operating system release.

Gradually, “Longhorn” assimilated many of the important new features and technologies slated for Blackcomb, resulting in the release date being pushed back several times in three years. In some builds of Longhorn, their license agreement said “For the Microsoft product codenamed ‘Whistler'”. Many of Microsoft’s developers were also re-tasked to build updates to Premiere free free pro cs6 adobe youtube XP and Windows Server to strengthen security.

Faced with ongoing delays and concerns about feature creepMicrosoft announced on August 27,that it feee revised its plans. For this reason, Longhorn was reset to start work on componentizing the Windows Server Service Pack 1 codebase, and over time re-incorporating the features that would be intended for an actual operating system release.

Longhorn became known as Vista in The early development stages of Longhorn were generally characterized by incremental improvements and updates to Windows XP. During this period, Microsoft was defaultt quiet about what was being worked on, as their marketing and public winfows efforts were more strongly focused on Windows XP, and Windows Serverwhich was released in April Occasional builds of Longhorn were leaked onto popular file sharing networks such as IRCBitTorrenteDonkey and various newsgroupsand so most windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free what is known about builds before the first sanctioned development release of Longhorn in May is derived from these builds.

After several months of relatively little news or activity from Microsoft with Longhorn, Microsoft released Buildwhich had made an appearance on the Internet around Fref 28, As an evolutionary release over buildit contained several small improvements, including ссылка modified blue “Plex” theme and a new, simplified Windows Image-based installer that operates in graphical mode from the outset, and completed an install of the operating system in enterpries one fre the time of Windows XP on the same hardware.

An optional “new taskbar” was introduced that was thinner than the previous build and displayed the time differently. The most notable visual and functional difference, however, came with Windows Explorer.

The incorporation of the Plex theme made blue the dominant color of the entire application. The Windows XP-style task pane was almost enterpriae replaced with a large horizontal pane that appeared under the toolbars.

A new search interface allowed for filtering of results, searching for Windows help, and natural-language queries that would be used to integrate with WinFS.

The animated search characters were also removed. The “view modes” were also replaced with a single slider that would resize the icons in real-time, in the list, thumbnail, or details mode, depending on where the slider was.

File metadata was also made more visible and more easily editable, with more active encouragement to fill out missing pieces of information. Also of note was the conversion of Windows Explorer to lmage a. NET application. Most builds of Longhorn and Vista were identified by a label that was pro x 4.1 free displayed in the bottom-right corner of the desktop.

A typical build label would look like “Longhorn Build Higher build numbers did windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free automatically mean that the latest features from every development team at Microsoft was included. Typically, a team working on a certain feature or subsystem would generate their working builds wnidows developers would test with, and when the code was adobe dreamweaver cs6 exam questions free download stable, all the changes would be incorporated back into the main windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free tree at once.

At Microsoft, several “Build labs” exist where the compilation of the entirety windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free Windows can windosw performed by a team. The name of the lab in which any given build originated is shown enterpgise part of the build label, and the date and time of the build follow that. Some builds such as Beta 1 and Beta 2 only display the build label in the version information dialog Winver.

The icons used in these builds are from Windows XP. The demonstrations were done on a revised build which was never released. Several sessions for developers and hardware engineers at the conference focused on these new features, as well as the Next-Generation Secure Computing Base previously known as freeewhich at the time was Microsoft’s proposed imae for creating a secure computing environment whereby any given component of the system could be deemed “trusted”.

Also at this conference, Microsoft reiterated their roadmap for delivering Longhorn, pointing to an “early ” release date.

Byit had become obvious to the Windows team at Microsoft that they were losing enterpprise of what needed to be done to complete the next version of Windows and ship it enter;rise customers. Internally, some Microsoft employees were describing the Longhorn project as “another Cairo” or “Cairo. Rt, referring to the Cairo development project that the company embarked on through the first half of the s, which never resulted in a shipping operating system though nearly all the technologies developed in that time did end up in Windows 95 and Windows NT [17].

It offered only a limited subset of features planned for Longhorn, in ehterprise fast file searching and integrated graphics and sound processing, but appeared to have impressive windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free and performance compared to contemporary Longhorn builds. In a September 23, front-page article in The Wall Street Journal[19] Microsoft co-president Enterpdise Allchinwho had overall responsibility for the development and delivery of Windows, explained how development jmage Longhorn had been “crashing into the ground” due in large part to the haphazard methods by which features were introduced and integrated into the core of the operating system, without a clear focus on an end-product.

Allchin went on to explain how in Decemberhe enlisted the help of two other senior executives, Brian Valentine and Amitabh Srivastava, the former being experienced with shipping software at Microsoft, most notably Windows Server[20] and imagee latter having spent his career at Microsoft researching and developing methods of producing high-quality testing systems.

This change, defaulh internally to Microsoft employees on August 26,began in earnest in September, though it would take several more months before the new development process and build methodology would be used by all of the development teams. A number of complaints came from individual developers, and Bill Gates himself, that the new development process was going to be prohibitively difficult to work within. By approximately Novemberthe company had considered several names for the final release, ranging from simple to fanciful and eindows.

In the end, Microsoft chose Windows Vista as confirmed on July 22,believing it to be a “wonderful windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free of what the product really does, what Windows stands for, and what wincows with customers, and their needs”. That’s what Windows Vista is x6 about: “bringing clarity to your world” a reference to the three marketing points of Vista—Clear, Connected, Confidentso you can focus on what matters to you”.

After Longhorn was named Windows Vista in Julyan unprecedented beta-test program was started, involving hundreds of thousands of gtm and companies. The first of these was distributed at the Microsoft Professional Developers Conferenceand windowss subsequently released to beta testers and Microsoft Developer Network subscribers.

The builds that followed incorporated most of the planned features for the final product, as well as a number of changes to the user interface, based largely on feedback from beta testers. Windows Vista was deemed feature-complete with the release of the “February CTP”, released on February 22,and much of the remainder of the work between that build and the final release of the product focused on stability, детальнее на этой странице, application and driver compatibility, and documentation.

Beta 2, wincows in late May, was the first build to be made available to the windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free public through Microsoft’s Customer Preview Cree. It was downloaded over по этой ссылке million times. Two release candidates followed in September and October, both of which were made available to a large number of users. The UEFI 2. As a result, the decision was made to postpone the introduction of UEFI support to Windows; support for UEFI on bit platforms was postponed until Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server and bit UEFI dfeault not be supported, as Microsoft did not expect many such systems to be built because the market was quickly moving to bit processors.

While Microsoft had originally hoped to have the consumer versions of the operating system available worldwide in time for the holiday shopping seasonit announced in March that the release date would be pushed back to January windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free order to wincows the company—and the hardware and software companies that Microsoft depends on for providing defaklt drivers —additional time to prepare.

Because a release to manufacturing RTM build is the final version of code shipped to retailers and other distributors, the purpose of a pre-RTM build is to eliminate any last “show-stopper” bugs that may prevent the code from responsibly being shipped to windowss, as well as anything imafe windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free consumers may find annoying.

Thus, it is unlikely that any major new features would be introduced; instead, work would focus on Vista’s fit and finish. In dedault a few days, developers had managed to drop Vista’s bug count from over on September 22 to just over by the time RC2 shipped in early October. However, they still had a way to go before Vista was ready to RTM. Microsoft’s internal processes required Vista’s bug count to drop to or fewer before the product could go into escrow for RTM.

On June 14,Windows developer Philip Su posted a blog entry which decried the development process of Windows Vista, stating that windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free code is way too complicated, and that the pace of coding has been tremendously slowed down by overbearing process. During a demonstration of the speech recognition feature new to Windows Vista at Microsoft’s Financial Analyst Meeting on July 27,the software recognized the enterptise “Dear mom” as “Dear aunt”.

110 several failed attempts to correct the error, the sentence eventually became ” Dear aunt, let’s set so double the killer delete select all “. Windows Vista build October 17, was supposed to be the RTM release, but a bug, which destroyed any system that was upgraded from Windows XP, prevented this, damaging development and lowering the chance that it would hit its January deadline.

Development of Windows Vista came to an end when Microsoft announced that it had been finalized on November 8,and was concluded by windpws of Windows development, Jim Allchin. Vista includes technologies детальнее на этой странице as ReadyBoost windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free узнать больше здесь ReadyDrivewhich employ fast flash memory located on USB flash drives and hybrid hard disk drives to improve system performance by caching commonly used programs and data.

This manifests itself in improved battery life on notebook computers as well, since a imagge drive can be spun down when not in use. It uses almost all the extra RAM as disk cache. As part http://replace.me/17154.txt the redesign of the networking architecture, IPv6 has been fully incorporated into the operating system [64] and a number of performance improvements have been introduced, such as TCP window scaling.

The new driver model facilitates the new Desktop Window Managerwhich provides the tearing -free desktop and special rgm that are the cornerstones of Windows Aero. Direct3D 10, developed in conjunction with major graphics card manufacturers, is a new architecture with more advanced shader support, and allows the graphics processing unit to render more complex scenes without assistance from the CPU. It does this by making it easy to connect to external monitors, providing for protected HD video playback, and increasing overall video playback quality.

For the first time in Windows, graphics processing unit GPU multitasking is possible, enabling users to run more than one GPU-intensive application simultaneously. The Heap Manager implements additional features such as integrity checking in order to improve robustness and defend against buffer overflow security exploitsalthough this comes at windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free price of breaking backward compatibility with some legacy applications. Improved security was imgae primary по этому сообщению goal for Vista.

UAC is a security technology that makes it possible for users to use their computer with fewer privileges by default, to stop malware from making unauthorized changes to the system. This was often difficult in previous versions of Ftm, as the previous “limited” user accounts proved too restrictive and incompatible with a large rtn of application software, and rhm prevented some basic operations such as looking at the calendar from the notification tray.

Regular use of the computer such as running programs, printing, or surfing the Internet does not trigger UAC prompts. User Account Control asks for credentials in a Windows 10 enterprise x64 rtm default image free Desktop mode, in which the entire screen is dimmed, and ddefault the authorization window is active and highlighted. The intent мне microsoft word 2013 justification free download талантливый to stop a malicious program from misleading the user by interfering with the authorization window, and to hint to the user about the importance of dtm prompt.

Symantec used over 2, active malware samples, consisting of backdoorskeyloggersrootkitsmass mailers, trojan horsesspywareadwareand various other samples. Each was defaulr on a default Windows Vista installation within a standard user account. UAC effectively blocked over 50 percent of each threatexcluding defahlt. Internet Explorer 7 ‘s new security and safety features include a phishing filter, IDN with anti-spoofing capabilities, and integration with system-wide parental controls.

For added security, ActiveX controls are disabled by default. Also, Internet Explorer operates in a protected mode, which operates with lower permissions than the user and runs in isolation from other applications in the operating system, preventing it from accessing or modifying anything besides the Temporary Internet Files directory.

 
 

Setting up Win10 to image for PXE server – Windows 10

 

This article will be updated as additional information becomes available. Please check back here regularly for updates and new FAQ. This article provides information and updates for a new class of silicon-based microarchitectural and speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities that affect many modern processors and operating systems.

It also provides a comprehensive list of Windows client and server resources to help keep your devices protected at home, at work, and across your enterprise. Specific vulnerability details for these silicon-based issues can be found in the following security advisories and CVEs:.

ADV – Guidance to mitigate speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities. On January 3, , Microsoft released an advisory and security updates related to a newly-discovered class of hardware vulnerabilities known as Spectre and Meltdown involving speculative execution side channels that affect AMD, ARM, and Intel processors to varying degrees. This class of vulnerabilities is based on a common chip architecture that was originally designed to speed up computers.

You can learn more about these vulnerabilities at Google Project Zero. The customer risk from both disclosures is low. For more information about these vulnerabilities, see the resources that are listed under May Windows operating system updates , and refer to the following Security Advisories:. For more information about this vulnerability and recommended actions, see the following Security Advisory:.

Note: We recommend that you install all of the latest updates from Windows Update before you install any microcode updates. On May 14, , Intel published information about a new subclass of speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities known as Microarchitectural Data Sampling. They have been assigned the following CVEs:.

We advise customers seek guidance from their respective vendors. Microsoft has released updates to help mitigate these vulnerabilities. To get all available protections, firmware microcode and software updates are required. This may include microcode from device OEMs. In some cases, installing these updates will have a performance impact.

We have also acted to secure our cloud services. Note : We recommend that you install all the latest updates from Windows Update before you install microcode updates. For more information about these issues and recommended actions, see the following Security Advisory:. On August 6, Intel released details about a Windows kernel information disclosure vulnerability.

This vulnerability is a variant of the Spectre Variant 1 speculative execution side channel vulnerability and has been assigned CVE Microsoft released a security update for the Windows operating system on July 9, to help mitigate this issue. Customers who have Windows Update enabled and have applied the security updates released on July 9, are protected automatically.

Note that this vulnerability does not require a microcode update from your device manufacturer OEM. You may have to update both your firmware microcode and your software to address these vulnerabilities. Please refer to the Microsoft Security Advisories for recommended actions. This includes applicable firmware microcode updates from device manufacturers and, in some cases, updates to your antivirus software.

We encourage you to keep your devices up-to-date by installing the monthly security updates. To receive all available protections, follow these steps to get the latest updates for both software and hardware.

Note: Before you begin, make sure that your antivirus AV software is up-to-date and compatible. Check your antivirus software manufacturer’s website for their latest compatibility information. Keep your Windows device up-to-date by turning on automatic updates. If automatic updates are turned on, the updates should be automatically delivered to you.

Install available firmware microcode updates from your device manufacturer. All customers will have to check with their device manufacturer to download and install their device specific hardware update. See the “Additional resources” section for a list of device manufacturer websites. Note: Customers should install the latest Windows operating system security updates from Microsoft to take advantage of available protections. Antivirus software updates should be installed first.

Operating system and firmware updates should follow. This means that all devices that are running Windows operating systems are potentially vulnerable.

This includes desktops, laptops, cloud servers, and smartphones. We advise customers who are running these operating systems to seek guidance from those vendors. At the time of publication, we had not received any information to indicate that these vulnerabilities have been used to attack customers.

Starting in January , Microsoft released updates for Windows operating systems and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers to help mitigate these vulnerabilities and help to protect customers. We also released updates to secure our cloud services. We continue working closely with industry partners, including chip makers, hardware OEMs, and app vendors, to protect customers against this class of vulnerability.

We encourage you to always install the monthly updates to keep your devices up-to-date and secure. We will update this documentation when new mitigations become available, and we recommend you check back here regularly. Security updates for this vulnerability were released as part of the July monthly update release on July 9, We held back documenting this mitigation publicly until the coordinated industry disclosure on Tuesday, August 6, On May 14, , Intel published information about a new subclass of speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities known as Microarchitectural Data Sampling and were assigned the following CVEs:.

For more information about this issue, see the following Security Advisory and use scenario-based guidance outlined in the Windows guidance for Clients and Server articles to determine actions necessary to mitigate the threat:.

KB Windows Server Guidance to protect against speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities. We recommend that you install all of the latest updates from Windows Update first, before you install any microcode updates. For more information about this issue and recommended actions, see the following Security Advisory:. The article also contains links to the available Intel microcode updates by CPU. These updates are available via the Microsoft Catalog.

Note : We recommend that you install all of the latest updates from Windows Update before you install any microcode updates. By enabling Retpoline on the latest version of Windows 10, via the May 14, update KB , we anticipate enhanced performance, particularly on older processors. Customers should ensure previous OS protections against the Spectre Variant 2 vulnerability are enabled using the registry settings described in the Windows Client and Windows Server articles.

Microsoft has released additional operating system protections for customers using bit ARM processors. This release completes the additional protections on all supported Windows system versions through Windows Update. For more information about these changes, please see our blog Windows Server SP2 servicing changes. Customers running Windows Server should install either or in addition to Security Update , which was released on August 14, Customers should also ensure previous OS protections against Spectre Variant 2 and Meltdown vulnerabilities are enabled using the registry settings outlined in the Windows Client and Windows Server guidance KB articles.

These new speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities can be used to read the content of memory across a trusted boundary and, if exploited, can lead to information disclosure. There are multiple vectors by which an attacker could trigger the vulnerabilities depending on the configured environment.

Security Advisory Security Research Blog. Server Guidance for L1 Terminal Fault. We are pleased to announce that Microsoft has completed releasing additional protections on all supported Windows system versions through Windows Update for the following vulnerabilities:.

For more information about this vulnerability, affected products, and recommended actions, see the following Security Advisory:.

KB lists specific Knowledge Base articles by Windows version. The article contain links to the available Intel microcode updates by CPU. The updates require corresponding firmware microcode and registry updates for functionality. This update is also available through Windows Update. To get the latest Intel microcode updates through Windows Update, customers must have installed Intel microcode on devices running a Windows 10 operating system prior to upgrading to the Windows 10 April Update version The microcode update is also available directly from Catalog if it was not installed on the device prior to upgrading the OS.

For more information and download instructions, see KB We will offer additional microcode updates from Intel for the Windows operating system as they become available to Microsoft. March 1, blog: Update on Spectre and Meltdown security updates for Windows devices. Starting in March , Microsoft released security updates to provide mitigations for devices running the following xbased Windows operating systems.

Customers should install latest Windows operating system security updates to take advantage of available protections. We are working to provide protections for other supported Windows versions but do not have a release schedule at this time. Please check back here for updates. For more information, see the related Knowledge Base article for technical details and the ” FAQ ” section. For more information, see the related knowledge base article for technical details and the ” FAQ ” section.

This update addresses an elevation of privilege vulnerability in the Windows kernel in the Bit x64 version of Windows. This vulnerability is documented in CVE Users must apply this update to be fully protected against this vulnerability if their computers were updated on or after January by applying any of the updates that are listed in the following Knowledge Base article:.

Windows kernel update for CVE This security update resolves several reported vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer. To learn more about these vulnerabilities, see Microsoft Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures.

Blog: Windows Analytics now helps assess Spectre and Meltdown protections. The following security updates provide additional protections for devices running bit x86 Windows operating systems. Microsoft recommends customers install the update as soon as available.

 

Microsoft FAQ – Amazon Web Services (AWS)

 

Windows 7 is a major release of the Windows NT operating system developed by Microsoft. It was released to manufacturing on July 22, , and became generally available on October 22, It remained an operating system for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops , laptops , tablet PCs and media center PCs, and itself was replaced in November by Windows 8 , the name spanning more than three years of the product.

Until April 9, , Windows 7 original release includes updates and technical support, after which installation of Service Pack 1 is required for users to receive support and updates. Windows 7’s server counterpart, Windows Server R2 , was released at the same time. A support program is currently available for enterprises, providing security updates for Windows 7 for up to four years since the official end of life.

Windows 7 was intended to be an incremental upgrade to Microsoft Windows , addressing Windows Vista’s poor critical reception while maintaining hardware and software compatibility. Windows 7 continued improvements on Windows Aero user interface with the addition of a redesigned taskbar that allows pinned applications, and new window management features. Other new features were added to the operating system, including libraries, the new file-sharing system HomeGroup, and support for multitouch input.

A new ” Action Center ” was also added to provide an overview of system security and maintenance information, and tweaks were made to the User Account Control system to make it less intrusive. Windows 7 also shipped with updated versions of several stock applications, including Internet Explorer 8 , Windows Media Player , and Windows Media Center.

Unlike Vista, Windows 7 received critical acclaim, with critics considering the operating system to be a major improvement over its predecessor because of its improved performance, its more intuitive interface, fewer User Account Control popups, and other improvements made across the platform. Windows 7 was a major success for Microsoft; even before its official release, pre-order sales for the operating system on the online retailer Amazon.

In just six months, over million copies had been sold worldwide, increasing to over million licenses by July By January , Windows 10 surpassed Windows 7 as the most popular version of Windows worldwide.

Major features were planned for Blackcomb, including an emphasis on searching and querying data and an advanced storage system named WinFS to enable such scenarios. However, an interim, minor release, codenamed “Longhorn,” was announced for , delaying the development of Blackcomb. After three major malware outbreaks—the Blaster , Nachi , and Sobig worms—exploited flaws in Windows operating systems within a short time period in August , [21] Microsoft changed its development priorities, putting some of Longhorn’s major development work on hold while developing new service packs for Windows XP and Windows Server Development of Longhorn Windows Vista was also restarted, and thus delayed, in August A number of features were cut from Longhorn.

When released, Windows Vista was criticized for its long development time , performance issues, spotty compatibility with existing hardware and software at launch, changes affecting the compatibility of certain PC games, and unclear assurances by Microsoft that certain computers shipping with XP before launch would be “Vista Capable” which led to a class-action lawsuit , among other critiques.

As such, the adoption of Vista in comparison to XP remained somewhat low. These were broadly divided into “core operating system” and “Windows client experience”, in turn organized into 25 teams of around 40 developers on average.

In October , it was announced that Windows 7 would also be the official name of the operating system. Other areas did not beat XP, including PC Pro benchmarks for typical office activities and video editing, which remain identical to Vista and slower than XP. On May 5, , it became available to the general public, although it had also been leaked onto the Internet via BitTorrent. Windows 7 RTM is build Among Windows 7’s new features are advances in touch and handwriting recognition , [53] support for virtual hard disks , [54] improved performance on multi-core processors, [55] [56] [57] [58] improved boot performance, DirectAccess , and kernel improvements.

Windows 7 adds support for systems using multiple heterogeneous graphics cards from different vendors Heterogeneous Multi-adapter , [59] a new version of Windows Media Center , [60] a Gadget for Windows Media Center, improved media features, XPS Essentials Pack [61] and Windows PowerShell [62] being included, and a redesigned Calculator with multiline capabilities including Programmer and Statistics modes along with unit conversion for length, weight, temperature, and several others.

ReadyBoost on bit editions now supports up to gigabytes of extra allocation. Windows 7 also supports images in RAW image format through the addition of Windows Imaging Component -enabled image decoders, which enables raw image thumbnails, previewing and metadata display in Windows Explorer, plus full-size viewing and slideshows in Windows Photo Viewer and Windows Media Center.

The taskbar has seen the biggest visual changes, where the old Quick Launch toolbar has been replaced with the ability to pin applications to the taskbar. Buttons for pinned applications are integrated with the task buttons. These buttons also enable Jump Lists to allow easy access to common tasks, and files frequently used with specific applications.

To the far right of the system clock is a small rectangular button that serves as the Show desktop icon. By default, hovering over this button makes all visible windows transparent for a quick look at the desktop.

Window management in Windows 7 has several new features: Aero Snap maximizes a window when it is dragged to the top, left, or right of the screen. When a user moves windows that were snapped or maximized using Snap, the system restores their previous state.

Snap functions can also be triggered with keyboard shortcuts. Aero Shake hides all inactive windows when the active window’s title bar is dragged back and forth rapidly.

Users are able to disable or customize many more Windows components than was possible in Windows Vista. Windows Defender is included; Microsoft Security Essentials antivirus software is a free download. All editions include Shadow Copy , which—every day or so—System Restore uses to take an automatic “previous version” snapshot of user files that have changed. A new system known as “Libraries” was added for file management; users can aggregate files from multiple folders into a “Library.

The system is also used as part of a new home networking system known as HomeGroup; devices are added to the network with a password , and files and folders can be shared with all other devices in the HomeGroup, or with specific users.

The default libraries, along with printers, are shared by default, but the personal folder is set to read-only access by other users, and the Public folder can be accessed by anyone. Windows 7 includes improved globalization support through a new Extended Linguistic Services API [86] to provide multilingual support particularly in Ultimate and Enterprise editions.

Microsoft also implemented better support for solid-state drives , [87] including the new TRIM command , and Windows 7 is able to identify a solid-state drive uniquely. Native support for USB 3. NET -based WCF web services , [91] new features to simplify development of installation packages and shorten application install times.

Additionally, users can now adjust the level at which UAC operates using a sliding scale. Certain capabilities and programs that were a part of Windows Vista are no longer present or have been changed, resulting in the removal of certain functionalities; these include the classic Start Menu user interface, some taskbar features , Windows Explorer features , Windows Media Player features , Windows Ultimate Extras , Search button, and InkBall.

Windows 7 is available in six different editions, of which the Home Premium , Professional , and Ultimate were available at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on most new computers. Home Premium and Professional were aimed at home users and small businesses respectively, while Ultimate was aimed at enthusiasts. Each edition of Windows 7 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and adds additional features oriented towards their market segments; for example, Professional adds additional networking and security features such as Encrypting File System and the ability to join a domain.

Ultimate contained a superset of the features from Home Premium and Professional , along with other advanced features oriented towards power users, such as BitLocker drive encryption; unlike Windows Vista, there were no ” Ultimate Extras ” add-ons created for Windows 7 Ultimate. The remaining three editions were not available at retail, of which two were available exclusively through OEM channels as pre-loaded software. The Starter edition is a stripped-down version of Windows 7 meant for low-cost devices such as netbooks.

In comparison to Home Premium, Starter has reduced multimedia functionality, does not allow users to change their desktop wallpaper or theme, disables the “Aero Glass” theme, does not have support for multiple monitors, and can only address 2GB of RAM.

All editions aside from Starter support both IA and x architectures , Starter only supports bit systems. The installation media for consumer versions of Windows 7 are identical, the product key and corresponding license determines the edition that is installed.

The Windows Anytime Upgrade service can be used to purchase an upgrade that unlocks the functionality of a higher edition, such as going from Starter to Home Premium , and Home Premium to Ultimate. Support for Windows 7 without Service Pack 1 ended on April 9, , requiring users to update in order to continue receiving updates and support after 3 years, 8 months, and 18 days. Mainstream support for Windows 7 ended on January 13, Extended support for Windows 7 ended on January 14, On September 7, , Microsoft announced a paid “Extended Security Updates” service that will offer additional updates for Windows 7 Professional and Enterprise for up to three years after the end of extended support.

Variants of Windows 7 for embedded systems and thin clients have different support policies: Windows Embedded Standard 7 support ended in October Instead, a more complex method, that typically involves the utilization of a patching tool, allows the installation of pirated Extended Security Updates.

This solution ended up being the only solution to allow consumer variants to continue to receive updates. This will mark the final end of the Windows NT 6. In March , Microsoft announced that it would display notifications to users informing users of the upcoming end of support, and direct users to a website urging them to purchase a Windows 10 upgrade or a new computer.

In August , researchers reported that “all modern versions of Microsoft Windows” may be at risk for “critical” system compromise because of design flaws of hardware device drivers from multiple providers. In September , Microsoft announced that it would provide free security updates for Windows 7 on federally-certified voting machines through the United States elections.

Additional requirements to use certain features: []. The maximum amount of RAM that Windows 7 supports varies depending on the product edition and on the processor architecture, as shown in the following table.

The x86 editions of Windows 7 support up to 32 logical processors; x64 editions support up to 4 x In January , Microsoft announced that it would no longer support Windows platforms older than Windows 10 on any future Intel-compatible processor lines, citing difficulties in reliably allowing the operating system to operate on newer hardware.

Microsoft stated that effective July 17, , devices with Intel Skylake CPUs were only to receive the “most critical” updates for Windows 7 and 8. Microsoft and their hardware partners provide special testing and support for these devices on 7 and 8.

On March 18, , in response to criticism from enterprise customers, Microsoft delayed the end of support and non-critical updates for Skylake systems to July 17, , but stated that they would also continue to receive security updates through the end of extended support.

However, the restrictions on newer CPU microarchitectures remain in force. Security updates released since March contain bugs which affect processors that do not support SSE2 extensions, including all Pentium III processors.

Microsoft initially stated that it would attempt to resolve the issue, and prevented installation of the affected patches on these systems. However, on June 15, , Microsoft retroactively modified its support documents to remove the promise that this bug would be resolved, replacing it with a statement suggesting that users obtain a newer processor. This effectively ends future patch support for Windows 7 on these systems.

A beta was released on July 12, In addition, it adds support for Advanced Format e as well as additional Identity Federation Services. In Europe, the automatic nature of the BrowserChoice. This update backports some features found in Windows 8.

Windows Management Framework 5. It was released on February 24, [] and was eventually superseded by Windows Management Framework 5. The rollup is not available via Windows Update, and must be downloaded manually. This package can also be integrated into a Windows 7 installation image. Since October , all security and reliability updates are cumulative.

Downloading and installing updates that address individual problems is no longer possible, but the number of updates that must be downloaded to fully update the OS is significantly reduced. In June , Microsoft announced that they’ll be moving Windows 7 to a monthly update model beginning with updates released in September [] – two years after Microsoft switched the rest of their supported operating systems to that model.

With the new update model, instead of updates being released as they became available, only two update packages were released on the second Tuesday of every month until Windows 7 reached its end of life – one package containing security and quality updates, and a smaller package that contained only the security updates.

Users could choose which package they wanted to install each month. Later in the month, another package would be released which was a preview of the next month’s security and quality update rollup.

 
 

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